HB 141 Human Trafficking Notice
House Bill 141 (Kidnapping; certain businesses and establishments post a model notice to enable persons who are the subject of human trafficking to obtain help and services) was passed during the 2013 session of the General Assembly and signed into law by Governor Nathan Deal on May 6, 2013 as O.C.G.A. 16-5-47. The new law requires certain businesses and establishments to post a notice to enable persons who are the subject of human trafficking to obtain help and services.
- Adult entertainment establishments
- Primary airports
- Passenger rail or light rail stations
- Bus stations
- Truck stops
- Emergency rooms within general acute care hospitals
- Urgent care centers
- Farm labor contractors and day haulers
- Privately operated job recruitment centers
- Safety rest areas located along interstate highways in this state
- Businesses and establishments that offer massage or bodywork services by a person who is not a massage therapist
The law also directs the Georgia Bureau of Investigation to post a model notice on its website. A link to the model notice is provided below. The businesses and establishments specified in the law are required to have the notice posted in a specified location by September 15, 2013. If a business or establishment fails to comply with the law, law enforcement can take action which, upon subsequent offenses, could result in the business or establishment owner being fined up to $5,000.
News & Media
We learn about a local initiative, the International Human Trafficking Institute, which aims to bring local leaders across all industries – from advocacy, to business, to the faith-based community – to end human trafficking. A conversation with the institute’s executive director, Deborah Richardson.
When Given Kachepa first arrived from Zambia as a young boy, he expected to sing in a choir and gain an education. Instead he was forced into servitude.
Texas Monthly / Read Full Article
Reviewing 58 cases of sex trafficking of girls in foster care in Florida between 2007 and 2014, it is alarming to note that in 74 percent of the cases, the girls were exploited in sex trafficking AFTER placement in foster care.
Human Trafficking Research / Read Full Article
U.S. law enforcement agencies have seized the sex marketplace website Backpage.com as part of an enforcement action by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, according to a posting on the Backpage website.
Reuters / Read Full Article
The systematic buying and selling of young boys and girls for sex is growing at a shocking rate in the United States and around the globe.
The Hill / Read Full Article
The City of Atlanta and Fulton County have been on the forefront of America’s efforts to address child sex trafficking.
Deborah Richardson, CCHR / Read Full Article
For the last several years, every city that has hosted the Super Bowl has waged an aggressive campaign against sex trafficking.
NPR, Morning Edition / Read Full Article
What Fuels Human Trafficking?
At its most basic form, human trafficking is the buying and selling of people. It exists across continents and is facilitated through a variety of venues, but ultimately - human trafficking is an industry, and it profits from the exploitation of people.
Human trafficking has been likened to modern-day slavery, and in many respects, the similarities are obvious.
IT'S THE 21ST CENTURY AND CHILDREN, WOMEN, AND MEN ARE STILL BEING FORCED TO WORK IN INHUMANE CONDITIONS, FOR LONG HOURS, FOR LITTLE TO NO PAY.
Slavery of the past was an accepted economic practice, but today, human trafficking is a criminal activity. Slavery used to systematically exploit specific groups of people, while today, anyone can be a human trafficking victim regardless of ethnicity, nationality, gender, age, or economic status. Human trafficking is now facilitated online and through social media. Traffickers use love and affection as control mechanisms, and those victimized might not even self-identify as victims. Human trafficking is an incredibly complex issue based on dozens of contributing factors. To understand how trafficking exists today, what it looks like, and why it is sustained, we are going to explore three factors that give it fuel.
First, human trafficking is fueled by a high reward, low risk dynamic. This means that traffickers can expect to make a lot of money with minimal fear of punishment or legal consequence. It’s the second most profitable illegal industry— second only to the drug trade. And while drugs are sold in one transaction, human beings can be sold over and over again. The costs are low and the profits are extremely high. The International Labor Organization estimates that profits from human trafficking and forced labor are $150 billion annually.
But what are the risks?
The table below shows the Global Enforcement Data from the 2015 Trafficking in Persons Report. It describes the estimated amount of human trafficking prosecutions and convictions around the world each year.
The number of prosecutions is shockingly low for an industry that victimizes an estimated 21 million people around the world. Lasting legal consequences for human traffickers are still minimal and rare. Traffickers know they can sell and exploit others and little will be done to stop them.
Second, human trafficking is fueled by the economic principles of supply and demand.
HUMAN TRAFFICKING IS THE ONLY INDUSTRY IN WHICH THE SUPPLY AND DEMAND ARE THE SAME THING: HUMAN BEINGS. PEOPLE DEMANDING THE SALE OF PEOPLE.
High demand drives the high volume of supply. Increasing demand from consumers for cheap goods incentivizes corporations to demand cheap labor, often forcing those at the bottom of the supply chain to exploit workers. Secondly, increased demand for commercial sex - especially with young girls and boys - incentivizes commercial sex venues including strip clubs, pornography, and prostitution to recruit and exploit children.
Lastly, systemic inequalities and disparities make certain groups much more vulnerable to exploitation. Mass displacement, conflict, extreme poverty, lack of access to education and job opportunities, violence, and harmful social norms like child marriage are all factors that push individuals into situations of trafficking. Families living in extreme poverty or families in situations of desperation are more likely to accept risky job offers. When girls aren’t allowed to learn, parents are more likely to sell their daughters to men for marriage.
Ultimately, harmful social norms and systemic inequity fuel trafficking because traffickers target vulnerability. Traffickers look for people living in poverty, those who are desperate, those without legitimate job options, those without educational opportunities, and the ones looking for a way to escape violence.
IF WE NEVER ADDRESS THESE BASIC HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS, WE WILL NEVER SEE THE DAY WHEN TRAFFICKING NO LONGER EXISTS.
What is Modern Slavery?
“Trafficking in persons,” “human trafficking,” and “modern slavery” are used as umbrella terms to refer to both sex trafficking and compelled labor. The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (Pub. L. 106-386), as amended (TVPA), and the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (the Palermo Protocol) describe this compelled service using a number of different terms, including involuntary servitude, slavery or practices similar to slavery, debt bondage, and forced labor.
Human trafficking can include, but does not require, movement. People may be considered trafficking victims regardless of whether they were born into a state of servitude, were exploited in their home town, were transported to the exploitative situation, previously consented to work for a trafficker, or participated in a crime as a direct result of being trafficked. At the heart of this phenomenon is the traffickers’ aim to exploit and enslave their victims and the myriad coercive and deceptive practices they use to do so.
When an adult engages in a commercial sex act, such as prostitution, as the result of force, threats of force, fraud, coercion or any combination of such means, that person is a victim of trafficking. Under such circumstances, perpetrators involved in recruiting, harboring, enticing, transporting, providing, obtaining, patronizing, soliciting, or maintaining a person for that purpose are guilty of sex trafficking of an adult. Sex trafficking also may occur through a specific form of coercion whereby individuals are compelled to continue in prostitution through the use of unlawful “debt,” purportedly incurred through their transportation, recruitment, or even their “sale”—which exploiters insist they must pay off before they can be free. Even if an adult initially consents to participate in prostitution it is irrelevant: if an adult, after consenting, is subsequently held in service through psychological manipulation or physical force, he or she is a trafficking victim and should receive benefits outlined in the Palermo Protocol and applicable domestic laws.
Child Sex Trafficking
When a child (under 18 years of age) is recruited, enticed, harbored, transported, provided, obtained, patronized, solicited, or maintained to perform a commercial sex act, proving force, fraud, or coercion is not necessary for the offense to be prosecuted as human trafficking. There are no exceptions to this rule: no cultural or socioeconomic rationalizations alter the fact that children who are exploited in prostitution are trafficking victims. The use of children in commercial sex is prohibited under U.S. law and by statute in most countries around the world. Sex trafficking has devastating consequences for children, including long-lasting physical and psychological trauma, disease (including HIV/AIDS), drug addiction, unwanted pregnancy, malnutrition, social ostracism, and even death.
Forced labor, sometimes also referred to as labor trafficking, encompasses the range of activities—recruiting, harboring, transporting, providing, or obtaining—involved when a person uses force or physical threats, psychological coercion, abuse of the legal process, deception, or other coercive means to compel someone to work. Once a person’s labor is exploited by such means, the person’s prior consent to work for an employer is legally irrelevant: the employer is a trafficker and the employee a trafficking victim. Migrants are particularly vulnerable to this form of human trafficking, but individuals also may be forced into labor in their own countries. Female victims of forced or bonded labor, especially women and girls in domestic servitude, are often sexually abused or exploited as well.
Bonded Labor or Debt Bondage
One form of coercion used by traffickers in both sex trafficking and forced labor is the imposition of a bond or debt. Some workers inherit debt; for example, in South Asia it is estimated that there are millions of trafficking victims working to pay off their ancestors’ debts. Others fall victim to traffickers or recruiters who unlawfully exploit an initial debt assumed, wittingly or unwittingly, as a term of employment. Traffickers, labor agencies, recruiters, and employers in both the country of origin and the destination country can contribute to debt bondage by charging workers recruitment fees and exorbitant interest rates, making it difficult, if not impossible, to pay off the debt. Such circumstances may occur in the context of employment-based temporary work programs in which a worker’s legal status in the destination country is tied to the employer so workers fear seeking redress.
Involuntary domestic servitude is a form of human trafficking found in distinct circumstances—work in a private residence—that create unique vulnerabilities for victims. It is a crime in which a domestic worker is not free to leave his or her employment and is abused and underpaid, if paid at all. Many domestic workers do not receive the basic benefits and protections commonly extended to other groups of workers—things as simple as a day off. Moreover, their ability to move freely is often limited, and employment in private homes increases their isolation and vulnerability. Labor officials generally do not have the authority to inspect employment conditions in private homes. Domestic workers, especially women, confront various forms of abuse, harassment, and exploitation, including sexual and gender-based violence. These issues, taken together, may be symptoms of a situation of domestic servitude. When the employer of a domestic worker has diplomatic status and enjoys immunity from civil and/or criminal jurisdiction, the vulnerability to domestic servitude is enhanced.
Forced Child Labor
Although children may legally engage in certain forms of work, children can also be found in slavery or slavery-like situations. Some indicators of forced labor of a child include situations in which the child appears to be in the custody of a non-family member who requires the child to perform work that financially benefits someone outside the child’s family and does not offer the child the option of leaving, such as forced begging. Anti-trafficking responses should supplement, not replace, traditional actions against child labor, such as remediation and education. When children are enslaved, their exploiters should not escape criminal punishment—something that occurs when governments use administrative responses to address cases of forced child labor.
Unlawful Recruitment and Use of Child Soldiers
Child soldiering is a manifestation of human trafficking when it involves the unlawful recruitment or use of children—through force, fraud, or coercion—by armed forces as combatants or other forms of labor. Perpetrators may be government armed forces, paramilitary organizations, or rebel groups. Many children are forcibly abducted to be used as combatants. Others are made to work as porters, cooks, guards, servants, messengers, or spies. Young girls may be forced to “marry” or be raped by commanders and male combatants. Both male and female child soldiers are often sexually abused or exploited by armed groups and such children are subject to the same types of devastating physical and psychological consequences associated with child sex trafficking.
Key Facts About Preventing Trafficking Victimization Through “Demand Reduction”
Sex trafficking in the U.S. is a business where “supply” is mostly vulnerable women and girls, and the “demand” is men who buy sex illegally. Demand reduction, which includes arresting and prosecuting sex buyers, can dramatically and sustainably prevent victimization.
Recent studies, including our nationally-representative survey of 8,201 U.S. men, find that 5-6% of U.S. men have bought sex in the past year. An additional 30% say they might buy sex in the future “if the circumstances were right.”
The likelihood of arrest is a powerful deterrent. In our survey, 85% of men who might consider buying sex say the risk of arrest is an important influence on their behavior. According to peer-reviewed studies, buyers are 70% less likely to re-offend after arrest.
Various studies find that a small percentage of buyers account for up to half of all illegal paid sex transactions. Many of these “high frequency” buyers purchase sex on a weekly basis, yet only 1 in 10 has ever been arrested.
Facts About Men Who Buy Sex
16% of men in the U.S. have paid for sex (Månsson, 2004)
49.2% of sex buyers in one sample had never discussed their buying of sex with anyone else (Atchison 2010)
Shively et al. (2012) identified the following five reasons men buy sex
Seeking Sex without Intimacy
Monto & McCree (2005) compared 1,672 men arrested for soliciting prostitutes to a nationally representative sample of men and found:
Sex buyers were less likely to be married than men in the national sample
If they were married, they were less likely to be happily married
Sex buyers reported being unhappier than men in the national sample
Sex buyers reported higher levels of pornography use, thinking about sex, masturbation, sexual liberalism, and strip club attendance
56% of prostituted individuals reported they had physically assaulted a client (Arnold et al., 2001)
Two of three prostitutes admitted to robbing a client (Sterk & Elifson, 1990)
16% of prostituted people said they had been physically attacked by a client within the past year (Benoit et al., 2014)
8% of prostituted people were threatened with a weapon or physical assault (Benoit et al., 2014)
Sex Buying in the Digital World
Belvins & Holt (2009) performed a qualitative analysis of a popular web forum for sex buyers to discuss their experiences with prostitutes. The men:
Emphasized paid sexual encounters as being “normal and nondeviant”
Avoided words “johns” and “trick”
Talked about prostituted people as “services or goods rather than human beings”
Milrod & Montro (2012) examined characteristics of men who use the internet to buy sexual services. The participants were 584 men who were paying members of TheEroticReview.com. TheEroticReview.com is a website that provides contact information, pricing and services provided for over 75,000 prostituted people, allows sex buyers to leave reviews and provides information on how to meet prostituted individuals and how to avoid getting arrested. It has over one million registered users, 800,000 reviews, and over 250,000 unique users daily
Average age: 49.5 (range: 22-79)
Average income: $141,500 (range: $0-300,000)
97.3% heterosexual/2.7% bisexual
41.1% had a graduate degree, 38% had a college degree, 18% had attended some college and 2.9% completed high school or a GED
Average age of first contact with a prostitute: 32.2
94.5% had met prostituted people in a hotel or motel
66.3% indicated they had met less than monthly with a prostituted person, while 24.7% indicated he paid for sex once or twice weekly
45% had been looking for paid sex online for over five years
72% of respondents indicated they wanted to interact with someone who “acted like a girlfriend and not like a prostitute”
Only 1% of men who reported buying sex in a Canadian study indicated they had ever been arrested for a prostitution related offense (Benoit et al., 2014)
Only 48% who reported buying sex in a Canadian sample said they were worried about getting arrested for buying sexual services (Benoit et al., 2014)
The shift from targeting the supply (prostituted people, pimps, etc.) to targeting the demand mostly came from communities not getting significant results by just targeting the supply (Shively et al., 2012)
One-year recidivism rates for Johns were reduced by 40% following the implementation of a “John School” in San Francisco (Shively, et al., 2008)
More Than 8,000 Sex Buyers Arrested in Growing Movement to End Demand:
New Technology Platform Addresses Supply and Demand of Sex Trafficking
We Cannot End Sex Trafficking Without Addressing Demand:
Deconstructing Demand: The Driving Force of Sex Trafficking:
Human Trafficking Awareness Training
There are at least 12 major types of tactics that have been used in over 1,430 U.S. cities and counties to deter men from buying sex. The numbers of cities and counties that have ever employed each type of tactic (last updated July 2, 2018) are presented in the following Table:
Click on a tactic below to learn more.
Two filmmakers conducted research in ten countries in their attempt to answer the question: “How can we prevent sexual exploitation before it happens in the first place?” Though many governments are improving their prosecution of traffickers and provision of care to victims, the filmmakers explore whether those approaches can actually shrink or eliminate the markets for commercial sex that drive sex trafficking and other forms of commercial sexual exploitation.
The End Trafficking project is UNICEF USA's initiative to raise awareness about child trafficking and mobilize communities to take meaningful action to help protect children. In partnership with concerned individuals and groups, the End Trafficking project aims to bring us all closer to a day when there are no exploited children. By the end of each episode you will be informed of various child trafficking issues and have specific tools to take action. For more information, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org